Heart diseases affect millions of people every year, making heart attacks the number one cause of death among American adults. There are several forms of heart disease and some of them are more common than others. The most common type of heart problem is coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is a condition in which fatty deposits (fat streaks) build up in the walls of the arteries leading to the heart.

The building of fat deposits can be from fat accumulation caused by genetic predisposition, overactive thyroid glands or from simply being overweight. Hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes are risk factors for coronary arteries. They increase the pressure of blood that flows through the arteries, restricting the flow of oxygenated blood to the heart. When there is a shortage of oxygen to the heart muscle becomes damaged. Coronary artery disease can lead to cardiac arrest, heart failure and heart attack.

Another form of heart problem is pericardial infarction, or a heart attack caused by abnormal tear flow in the walls of the heart chambers. This is a sharp, sudden drop in the pressure of blood flowing to the heart from the coronary arteries. Symptoms of pericardial infarction include chest pain, heart palpitations, dizziness, irregular heart beat, difficulty breathing and tingling in the arms and fingers. People who experience these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.

Endocarditis is a bacterial infection that infects the inner layers of the heart membranes. It is caused by an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria that produces toxins that affect the normal functioning of the heart. Symptoms include weakness, excessive sweating, nausea and fever due to the increased oxygen levels in the blood.

Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the lungs to all parts of the body. Pulmonary circulation is necessary for proper distribution of oxygen and nutrients to various organs of the body. When a person experiences a rapid decrease in the flow of blood to the lungs, the heart has to work even harder to circulate the blood. A heart failure may occur when this process is impaired.

The function of heart muscles is divided into four phases. The first phase, or physiotherapeutic stage, controls the functioning of heart tissue and the pumping ability of the heart. The second phase, or posteroic phase, controls the function of blood within the heart and the transfer of oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the various parts of the body. The third phase, or intrinsic phase, regulates the production and release of arterial blood from the coronary arteries to the various parts of the body. The fourth phase, or functional phase, controls the rate and timing of heart beat and involves coordinated activities of the heart, lungs, and other cardiac organs. In order for the heart to beat at its fastest rate during physiological activity, adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood is needed.

Heart muscles have several types: myocardial, parasympathetic, accessory, and residual. Within each type, there are specialization. For example, myocardial is the major part of the heart where cardiomyocytes are present. Parasympathetic myocardial relaxes the myocardial muscles during periods of stress and tension, which relaxes the parasympathetic nerves that carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to various parts of the body. And, residual or accessory myocardial relaxes the accessory myocardium during periods of increased heart rate and during resting.

The term “cardiac” refers to the action of pumping blood through the heart. Cardiovascular System – or simply Cardio – includes the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, and the spinal cord. Pulmonary circulation – or simply Pulmonary Circulation – carries blood from the lungs to the other parts of the body. The major transport organs of the body are: heart, lungs, and intestines.